Though South Sudan is relatively well endowed with water resources, communities face many challenges in terms of access to water. In 2005, only 27% of the population of 8 million inhabitants had access to improved water supply (Water Policy, 2007).
The Sudan Household Health Survey (SHHS) of 2006 and 2010 shows an increase in the percentage of population having access to improved water sources from 48.3% in 2006 to 68.7% in 2010 respectively (according to the WHO definition of access). However, it has been estimated that if these coverage figures took into account parameters related to quantity, quality or time, the actual portion of the population with access to improved water sources would reduce to 34% (SSDP, 2011-2013).
In Lakes State, access and coverage for drinking water (both quantity and quality) is low. Most hand pumps used in South Sudan are India Mark II, which have a sturdy reputation and reasonable availability of spare parts. In addition to boreholes, Lakes State also has solar driven small water distribution systems (Rumbek Town, Cueibet Town, etc.); which are innovation and can be tapped to address the low coverage to safe water. The County conducts an inventory of functional / non-functional boreholes once every month. There is no existing borehole spare part supply chain and issues of community ownership of public WASH facilities (which is poor in Lakes State) also need to be addressed.
The SHHS of 2006 estimated the overall sanitation coverage in the country to be 14.6%. The National Baseline Household Survey of 2009, reports that in Lakes State, only 5.5% of the population have pit latrines while 93.7% have no toilet facility at all and less than 1% use other types of toilet. The Statistical Yearbook for Southern Sudan 2010 gives a further breakdown as shown in the table below.
The 2011 WASH Strategic Framework supports the promotion of Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) alongside incremental improvements in household latrine usage, while still keeping focus on the provision of institutional and public sanitation.
The Lakes State Strategic Development Plan acknowledges the critical lack of domestic and public sanitation facilities. Therefore, facilitating access to improved sanitation is a top priority for the state and an important component of the W4L programme.
The W4L programme has the following specific objective and planned results for the Water for People component:
|Specific Objective 6: Safe water and improved sanitation in 5 (out of 8) selected counties made available in a participatory and sustained manner.|
|Result 6.1: Safe domestic water and sanitation infrastructure constructed or rehabilitated in selected counties.|
|Result 6.2: Sanitation facilities constructed for public areas.|
|Result 6.3: Local Government Administration (LGA) staff’s, private sector and communities have knowledge and capacity for planning and O&M to achieve a sustained supply of safe water and sustained improved sanitation.|